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History of Kashgar
History of city: ​​In middle ages, Kashgar was the main market place on the Great Silk Road, from where, the caravans were moving to the west (to Fergana Valley), south (to Kashmir), southeast (to Khotan and Keria) and northeast (to Turfan). Until the 2nd century BC. the oasis was owned by yuezhi. The first invasion of the Chinese occurred in 138 BC. One of the most dramatic military campaigns occurred in 747, when the Chinese armed forces, taking Kashgar and the Pamirs, ousted Tibetans, who at that time completely controlled the western territories. Then, for almost 1000 years, the area..
Emin (Imin) Minaret
Minaret of Turpan ruler Suleiman / Pagoda Sugun is the largest ancient Muslim tower in Xinjiang and throughout China. Emin Minaret is the most impressive architectural structure of Turfan. Emin Minaret is remarkable as a monument of Muslim architecture, it was conceived by Turfan Emin ruler in gratitude to the Chinese emperor Tsyanlun (1736-1795) for the mercy shown them. But Emin couldn’t complete the construction fails, the minaret was completely rebuilt by his son - Prince Suleiman in 1778. Minaret reaches a height of 40 meters, has a dome shape with a diameter at the base of 10 meters. The..
Mahmud Kashgari Tomb
The Mahmud Kashari Tomb, located in the Wupar Village, Shufu County, is set off with trees and bushes. Mahmud Kashgari was born in aristocratic family of the Karakhanid Dynasty in the eleventh century. An outstanding Uygur scholar and linguist, Mahmud compiled The Complete Turkish Dictionary. His tomb is highly respected by the Uygur people and many Islamic scholars have contributed their favorite books to the tombs; it has thus slowly become a kind of library, and people respectfully call it Haiziliti Maolamu, meaning the tomb of honorable scholars. His Turkish Dictionary was translated into ..
Apak Hoja Tomb
Apak Hoja Tomb, five kilometers northeast of Kashgar an important cultural unit protected by the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. As a tomb of the descendants of an Islamic missionary, it was built around 1640 .The legend has it that seventy-two persons in all of five generations of the same family were buried in the tomb. The first generation buried here was Yusuf Hoja, a celebrated Islam missionary. After he died, his eldest son Apak Hoja carried on the missionary work and became the leader of the famous Islamic sect of white mountaineer during the seventeenth century which seized the power of th..
Id Kah Mosque
The Id Kah Mosque, in uyghur means Square of festival. Typical Uyghur structure, regarded biggest in China, located in the center of Kashar, has a history of more than five hundred years.100,000 worshippers attend religious service at the same time. Shakesimirza, the ruler of Kashgar at that time, had the mosque built here first in 1442, in the aim to where he would say prayers to the souls of his deceased relatives. Extended and renovated time several times but keep the style, size, painting, it has finally reached its present size. The Mosque, 140 meters long from south to north and 120 met..
Tashkurgan
Tashkurgan is a small and cosy town, - the administrative center of Tajik autonomous district in China"s Xinjiang. It is situated in a broad valley, which is surrounded by snowy peaks of Pamir (the altitude is above 3,000 meters) in 230 kilometers to the south of the legendary Kashgar. There are only three streets in the town, with neat one- and two- storied houses among green high Lombardy poplars. The name Tashkurgan (is translated from Uighur - "stone hill, stone castle") came of the ancient fortress rising above the city on the high hill. This fortress is over 2,000 years old and it is ver..
Attractions Park
It is located in the southern part of Urumqi, in the native zone Yanervo. It was opened officially in 1987. Now it is the biggest amusement park in Northern China. The park is situated near the natural lake where you can have excursions on boats during hot summer days. Thousand-meters-long “Chinese wall” separates the park into two zones. You can quietly enjoy nature sitting in comfortable pavilions from one side, ride on electric cars and visit various attractions from another side. There are more than 60 attractions in the park, including: "Roller Coaster", Ferris wheel (58 meters), go-ka..
Urumchi
Urumqi is a cultural, administrative, commercial and tourist center of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. It is a huge metropolis with the population about 3 million people. Due to its geographic location it was the major trading city of the northern branch of the Silk Road in ancient times. Urumqi has become the largest shopping center in China for the last 20 years - it is a real paradise for shopping tours. Any city in China cannot offer a greater variety of goods than Urumqi. All products are delivered here from many factories in different provinces. There is also great night life ..
Several scenic areas near Urumqi
Nanshansk Wildlife Preservation is located in 50 km to the south of Urumqi and it is a part of Urumqi - Nanshansk landscaped area. You can come here for the whole day and stay overnight, spend time for hiking or horseback excursions. There are several picturesque gorges in the Wildlife Preservation. 40 meters high waterfall is in one of them, a noisy mountain river is in another one, deer, rabbits and other animals live in the third one. You will walk there about an hour, but the surrounding beauty does not let you to feel tired. You can stop there for rest and have some food in the yurts of l..
Museum of Turfan History
Turfan Central Museum is a concise history of Turfan oasis with a collection consisting of 5.000 of historical relics, pulled from Turpan Basin, beginning from the Paleolithic Age (about 3 million years BC) to modern days. This museum is the second one in the Xinjiang with the largest collection. The museum has a display, which is divided into three parts: historical relics of Turpan, Turpan ancient mummies exhibition and exposition of a large fossil rhinoceros. The fossil of the large rhinoceros is the pride of the museum. It is confirmed that this is the most well-preserved fossil skeleton o..
Xinjiang State Museum
Xinjiang State Museum is one of the oldest, largest and most interesting museums in China and Central Asia. More than 50 thousand unique historical artifacts from all over Xinjiang are exposed here. The total area of showrooms is 7800 square meters. You can see the traditions and culture of local people; study their national costumes, everyday life, wedding and funeral ceremonies, national cuisine, religion and other customs in the Hall of ethnography. More than thousands of valuable items of ancient culture and art are exposed In the Hall of historical and archaeological monuments. They..
Safari Park (Tien Shan Reserve of Wildlife)
Tien Shan Zoo Safari is the largest one in China. Its area is 75 sq. km. Safari Park is located in 40 km from Urumqi. Visitors of the park ride in special electric vehicles. 170 different kinds of animals – over 3000 species in total - are collected in this zoo. There are exotic animals also: giraffes, lions, tigers, elephants, hippos and rhinos, snow leopards, Siberian tigers, etc. In 2008 a new occupant - panda settled in the reserve. Therefore, you need not to fly to south China for admiring these wonderful animals, visit Urumqi simply. You can visit parrots show and a huge open-air cage wi..
Hun Shan (Red Hill)
The mountain "Hun Shan" (Red Hill) is a symbol of Urumqi. Red Hill is situated in the center of Urumqi. It has such name because of brown-red color of the sandstone and red clay on top of the mountain. The highest point is 910 meters above the sea level. Cliffs of Red Mountain are very impressive. Jasper Emperor’s temple was built on the top of Red Mountain during Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), but it was destroyed during the war in 1930. Formerly there was a 9-storey pagoda “The conquest of dragon”. After the founding of the PRC, the temple tower (height - 10.5 m) and the pavilion was built on ..
Flaming Mountains
Flaming Mountains are located in 10 km to east of Turpan and represent a mountain range 100 km from east to west and 10 km wide. They are composed of reddish-brown sandstone, and under the sunshine it really looks like flames. Coloration of the mountains varies depending on the intensity of solar radiation and ambient temperature, making the mountains look like a living, changing its shape. Here temperature reaches 55C in summer. The mountains were colorfully described in the classic Chinese epic "Journey to the West", which loosely describes a real enough for the wandering Buddhist canon t..
Kashgar (Kashi)
Kashgar is one of the oldest cities in the world, it’s history is over 2,000 years. Kashgar in Chinese is called Kashi, which means "place of sale of the stones." And it is not surprising, because the city is located in a green oasis next to the mountain ranges of the Tien Shan and Kunlun, and the mountains of the Eastern Pamir and the endless sands of the Taklamakan Desert. From the earliest time, Kashgar was a big shopping center at the crossroads of the Silk Road of Central Asia, and since then, his role in the trade of the region remains high. The famous grand Kashgar Sunday Bazaar coll..
Turpan
Turpan / Turfan / Tulufan is a trading outpost on the ancient Silk Road, a city with more than 20 centuries history and the most interesting tourist center of Xinjiang. Turpan is located in 180 km to south-east from Urumchi on the border of the Gobi desert in the Turfan Basin, depth is 154 m below sea level (the second one of the depth after the Dead Sea basin in the world). Turpan is the hottest place in China, in summer the temperature here reaches 49 C (in winter to minus 20 C). Turpan is the driest place in China, and perhaps even in the world (less than 10 mm of rain per year). Turpan is ..
Necropolis Astana
Astana Karahodja Tombs are an ancient burial of people of Gaochang. Mummies, textiles and books, which are placed in underground vaults of almost two thousand years ago, perfectly preserved to this day. Necropolis is located in the Gobi Desert to the north of the settlement Gaochang in about 8 square km. Graves date back to the period from the III to the VIII century. Here there are graves of people from both the nobility and the commoners. As excavations shown, each burial vault is a cave, where the underground corridor is going from the surface. In many graves the walls of the crypts are ..
Tuyuk Village
Tuyuk village is located in 47 kilometers to west of Turpan city and in 13 km from the ancient city of Gaochang in the Grand Canyon of Tuyuk Valley, it is the oldest settlement in the Xinjiang Uighur. The settlement is over 2,000 years. Here still the sacred places exist,which attract a large number of local and foreign pilgrims. Grand Canyon Tuyuk extends 8 km in length and about 1 km in width. The highest peak of the Flaming Mountains is situated in this canyon (the height is 831.7 meters). Tourists will be interesting to see here the real rural life, ancient vineyards, the ancient mosque an..
Tien-shi Lake (Heaven Lake)
Tien-Chi lake (Heaven Lake) is situated in 120 kilometers from Urumqi in picturesque Tien Shan mountains at 1980 meters altitude above sea level. Its length is 3.3 km, and at its widest point is 1.5 km. The area of the lake is 4.9 km ², the maximum depth is 105 meters. The moon-shaped lake has a glacial origin. In ancient times Tien-Chi lake was called Shi Yao (Jade Lake). The water is so clear and transparent that you can see its bottom. But the water temperature is very low even in high summer. In summer it is especially beautiful place: green carpet of grass, bright flowers and snowy peak o..
Karakul Lake
It is 190km from Kashgar on the Kara Koram Highway with the elevation of 3600m above sea level. It is on the lap of two giants, Muztagh Ata regarded "the father of ice mountains", Kongur reputated with more avalanche. It is rare highland lake in the world. By the lake, there are yurts and restaurants available for tourists to stop and over night. In a fine day You get a good view of Muz- Tagh Ata and Kongur and snow-cappad peaks, flocks of animals, grassland are all reflected in the water, wich looks majestic.             ..
Salt Lake
Local people call Salt Lake -"Chinese dead sea". The area of this lake is 54 square km and it is located in 70 km from Urumqi on the east part of Chayvopusk cavity at the southern foot of Tien Shan Mountains. Its water contains salts and minerals such as magnesium, zinc, copper, sulfur, calcium, sodium with density of 21.5 grams per liter of water. In water with such high density, even those, who cannot swim, are in absolute safety. This area is rich in therapeutic mud also. And this is the best medicine and cosmetics, because of more than 10 beneficial minerals. A special complex is built on ..
Kyariz (kariz) – old irrigation system
Kyariz is an ancient irrigation system, which is established by the Uighurs over two thousand years ago. It is believed that the idea and technology of kyariz brought here on the Silk Road by ancient Iranians. Kyariz is distributed widely in Iran, Central Asia and even North Africa. But perhaps these irrigation systems have evolved in parallel, as even in those days, Turpan was a flourishing oasis, using plenty of water. In essence, kyariz is a horizontal tunnel (gallery), which is laid from the future field to the aquifers, located at the foot of mountains. The galleries are opened every 3..
The geographical center of Asia continent
"The geographical center of Asia continent" monument is located near Yungfen in 30 km from Urumqi. Its geographic coordinates are 87°19"52" east longitude and 43°40"37" north latitude. The center (Heart of Asia) was mathematically calculated by Xinjiang branch of Chinese Academy of Sciences and got an official confirmation in 1992. A grandiose monument "Heart of Asia" is a tower of 18 meters on four steel supports, which are oriented to all corners. From every side it represents the letter A, which signifies the first letter in the word Asia. The stylized globe is on the top of the tower, the ..
Settlement Gaochang
The ancient Gaochang town (forty six kilometers on south-east from Turpan near Yalkun Tag mountains (flaming Mountain)) was built in the first century BC, as a military outpost, a key town on Great Silk road. Before VII с. it was ruling city of over 21 cities. Many of Buddha temples were saved. The Kindom Karahodja was founded here in IX century. It was existed for 1400 years. It was destroyed in XIII century. But from XIV century the town, which name was transformed in Karahodja under influence of Islam, now is situated in ruins. But in spite of 5 centuries, the parts of glorious capital o..
Jiaohe settlement
Among the many historical sites of Turfan, a settlement Jiaohe / Yargol / Yarghol is in the first place, it was the capital of the ancient state Cheshi (2300 years ago), and later – of Gaochang Kingdom, Western Areas (Tang 618-907) and the Uigur Khaganate. This is the largest and oldest well-preserved mud-brick fort in the world. It is located in ten kilometers from Turpan. Its area is 430 thousand sq. m. Two rivers bordering the settlement to east and west, determined his name - Mesopotamia. Jiaohe was built over 3,000 years ago, this is the oldest city in the Turfan Basin. Interestingly, tha..
Erdaogiao Bazaar
This is the central and largest bazaar of the city. Bazaar was reconstructed and completed in 2003 in Islamic style, and it looks like a huge palace with towers and domes. On over 1 million square meters area tourists can buy all sorts of souvenirs in many shops - Kashgar knives, cutting even the metal nail, Yangisar daggers, Khotan jade, Khotan and Kashgar handmade carpets, embroidered skullcaps, traditional clothes, silk scarves, the national musical instruments, national gold jewelry, of semi-precious stones. Fruit shops is worth to visit, where you can fell a famous fragrance of melons fro..
Grape Valley
Buyluk Grape Valley is located in the famous Flame Mountains in 13 kilometers from Turpan. Its length is 8 km from north to south, a width is 2 km. This is a paradise of grape vines in 400ga located on different levels. The valley is irrigated by mountain kyariz water. There are many restaurants with various cuisines and tasting rooms of local wine. The abundance of greenery, lots of ponds seem to be a paradise for tourists of Turfan summer heat. Nearby, there is an observation deck with beautiful views of the valley of Turpan in the mountains. There is also the largest tandoor (clay oven) in ..
Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves
The famous Bezeklik cave temples of Thousand Buddhas are situated in the vicinity of Turfan in Mutos gorge, it is one of the largest Buddhist monuments in China, and this is the place of birth and spreading of Buddhism in China (VI cent. Gaochang kingdom). You can see series of niches cut into the cliffs on the steep walls of the gorge Muto. The figures of Buddhist saints are in niches. "Baytsziklik" in Uighur means "well decorated place." Most of the caves are dug in the rock, only some of them have special mud walls and covering, but it is obvious that in the construction of the caves it is ..
Sunday Market
Sunday Bazaar, in Uygur means "farm trade market." The bazaar in Kashgar is the biggest in central Asia. As early as two thousand years ago, it was the collecting and distributing center of goods. Nowadays, it has become even more busy. On bazzar day every Sunday, the traffic gets heavy on every road with crowds upon crowds of market-goers coming in from all directions . There is on the bazaar just about everything you"d expect to find, such as various special local products, handicrafts, articles of daily use , fruits and vegetables as well as means of production and all kinds of domestic ani..
Chinese Xinjang History
Kashgar has a history of more than 2"000 years. The earliest reference appeared in Persian documents referring to an alliance of Tushlan tribes, who founded their capital here. Kashgar was possibly the first of the Buddhist kingdoms of the Tarim basin. In the second century AD, Hinayana Buddhism flourished here and continued to do so until the ninth or tenth century. During this period Indian and Persian cultural influences were strong. Xuan Zang noted that the Kashgaris had green eyes perhaps a reference to Aryan origins and that for their writing they take their model from India. The dispo..

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