There are two architectural and archaeological monuments – Old and New Nissa. The Old Nissa was the capital of Parthia, which existed and flourished more than 2000 years ago (from III c. B.C. to III c. A.D.). In that period Nissa was the strong fortress located on the hill with thick 8 meter walls and 43 towers, which surrounded the royal palace. The city arranged to the right of the basic commercial routes was adjacent to it. Old Nissa existed only till III c. B.C., when the territory was governed by Persian dynasty of Sasanids.
New Nissa was populated more lately. The place was flourishing and played an important role in development of the region till XIII c. till the invasion of Mongols. The invasion of Mongols completely destroyed the city in two weeks.
Now the large quantity of historical values, discovered during the excavations have been transmitted to Ashgabat National Museum. The basic buildings of old Nissa are located in two parts a fortress: northern and central (sometimes called southern). Treasury and wine-making, workshops were in the north part of the fortress. The throne hall was located in the central section. It was decorated with terracotta. The round hall (17 m in diameter) is surrounded by corridors.
The Repetek center of desert study - unique nature-conservation complex is interesting. Summer temperatures of approximately 50° C are registered here and the surface of sand is incandesced up to 70° C. Nevertheless this piece of Kara-Kum is populated by many species. Very rare forms of "queen of snakes" - cobra, large black scorpions, tarantulas and contemporaries of dinosaurs - monitor lizards, that grow up to 1,5 m in length are encountered among the almost thousand local varieties of insects, spiders, reptiles, rodents, etc.,. All this variety is kept not only with great care, but is also thoroughly investigated. In this natural serpentarium the variety of snakes makes it possible to carry out the large volume of investigations of poisons properties and creation of new medications.
Turkmen are excellent horsemen. For the long time they high valued good horses. They considered them as their friends. This "passion" was preserved also to the present and now the horses are one of the main sights of the country. Famous "prompt as wind" akhaltekins glorified the country to entire world. Akhaltekin racer is depicted even on the state coat of arms. This is actually unique breed - rapid, graceful, with sharpened "swan" neck and thin no fat feet. These horses are also amazingly hardy.