Kyariz is an ancient irrigation system, which is established by the Uighurs over two thousand years ago. It is believed that the idea and technology of kyariz brought here on the Silk Road by ancient Iranians. Kyariz is distributed widely in Iran, Central Asia and even North Africa. But perhaps these irrigation systems have evolved in parallel, as even in those days, Turpan was a flourishing oasis, using plenty of water.
In essence, kyariz is a horizontal tunnel (gallery), which is laid from the future field to the aquifers, located at the foot of mountains. The galleries are opened every 30-50 m by vertical wells. Wells with a diameter of 1-1.5 m had a depth about few tens of meters.
Today, like thousands of years ago, kyariz irrigation in Turpan is the main source of water for the fields. More than a thousand underground canals have a total length of 2,500 kilometers, and they were dug by hand using primitive tools. It is really admirable. Not without reason, kyarizes were compared with the Great Wall of China. It is still unknown, what do require a great effort and bring more benefits to the creators.
Today visitors can see the existing underground drainage galleries and find out all about them by visiting the interesting museum of kyarizes in Turpan.